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Curricular Endpoints

A. Provide patient care in cooperation with patients, prescribers, and other members of an interprofessional health care team based upon sound therapeutic principles and evidence-based data, taking into account relevant legal, ethical, social, cultural, economic and professional issues, emerging technologies, and evolving biomedical, pharmaceutical, social, behavioral, administrative and clinical sciences that may impact therapeutic outcomes.

  1. Provide patient-centered care through the ability to design, implement, monitor, evaluate, and adjust pharmacy care plans that are patient-specific, address health literacy, cultural diversity, and behavioral/psychosocial issues, and are evidence-based.
    1. Gather and organize accurate and comprehensive patient information to identify ongoing or potential drug therapy problems.
    2. Interpret and evaluate patient and drug-related data needed to identify actual or potential drug therapy problems.
    3. Design, implement, and defend a course of treatment based on evidence that best addresses the patients' health needs.
    4. Prepare, dispense, and/or administer a pharmaceutical product for patient use based on professional practice guidelines.
    5. Counsel patients to ensure appropriate pharmaceutical care outcomes, and institute programs to maximize compliance to drug regimens.
    6. Educate patients about behaviors that promote health (including drug adherence), maintain wellness, prevent, and control disease.
    7. Monitor patients to optimize therapeutic efficacy and minimize side effects.  Develop strategies to manage and minimize potential adverse events.
    8. Develop strategies to manage and minimize potential adverse events.
    9. Display respect and sensitivity for patient and family attitudes, behaviors and lifestyles, paying particular attention to cultural, ethnic and socioeconomic influences while incorporating cultural preferences, spiritual, and health beliefs and behaviors into the patient care plan.
  2. Manage a successful patient-centered practice (including practice marketing, and ensuring appropriate compensation for medication therapy management and other patient care services)
    1. Assess the healthcare needs of the patient population of a practice and identify risk factors that would adversely affect patient health.
    2. Design evidence-based disease management programs that incorporate outcome indicators, drug treatment protocols, risk reduction strategies, and education programs for health care providers and patients.
    3. Develop a written plan for provision of informational and health preventive service and identify potential methods and/or plans to generate physical or financial support from internal and external sources.
    4. Identify the impact of the government and third-party payers on pharmacy operations and understand the basic principles/strategies for negotiating contracts with payers.
    5. Develop strategies for reimbursement of pharmacy services, such as medication therapy management and chronic illness plans.

B. Manage and use resources of the health care system in cooperation with patients, prescribers, other health care providers, and administrative and supportive personnel to promote health, to provide, assess, and coordinate safe, accurate, and time-sensitive medication distribution in order to improve therapeutic outcomes of medication use.

  1. Manage human, physical, medical, informational, and technological resources through the ability to ensure efficient, cost-effective use of these resources in the provision of patient care.
    1. Describe and demonstrate appropriate utilization of management principles and use of health care resources in the American health care system.
    2. Apply the principles of business planning to develop a business plan that supports the implementation and provision of pharmaceutical care services, identifies and acquires necessary resources, and assures financial success of the practice.
    3. Apply the principles of human resource management to recruit and supervise pharmacy personnel.
    4. Evaluate the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and outcomes from institutional and community-based interventions designed to improve health.
    5. Based on results of continuous assessment, recommend strategies to amend and improve resource utilization.
  2. Manage medication use systems through the ability to apply patient- and population-specific data, quality improvement strategies, medication safety and error-reduction programs, and research processes to minimize drug misadventures and optimize patient outcomes; to participate in the development of drug use and health policy; and to help design pharmacy benefits.
    1. Identify and report medication errors and adverse drug reactions to appropriate individuals and organizations
    2. Evaluate information obtained from adverse drug reaction and medication error reporting systems to identify preventable causes.
    3. Recommend and implement actions to minimize the occurrence of adverse drug reactions and medication errors in a health-care system.
    4. Apply population-specific data and quality improvement strategies to develop policies that minimize drug misadventure (including medication errors, overdose, and poisoning).
    5. Participate as part of a multidisciplinary team in the pharmaceutical care system's process for conducting medication use evaluations.
    6. Identify strategies to assure that all relevant members of a patient population receive needed services (reduce health disparity).

C. Promote health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention in cooperation with patients, communities, at-risk populations, and other members of an interprofessional team of health-care providers.

  1. Provide population care through the ability to develop and implement population-specific evidence-based disease management programs and protocols based upon analysis of epidemiologic and pharmacoeconomic data, medication use criteria, medication use review, and risk-reduction strategies.
    1. Apply population-specific data to identify at-risk populations, factors that determine health status and those that influence the use of health services.
    2. Provide clinical preventive services (based on pharmacists practice activity domains) to improve outcomes and quality of life.
    3. Identify the needs for patient follow-up and referral to other health and disease prevention programs and be able to provide the follow-up and referral when necessary.
    4. Assess and monitor at-risk populations to identify and report health problems, and to prioritize interventions in collaboration with patients, other health professionals, members of the community, and policy makers.
    5. Identify the roles pharmacists play in emergency preparedness (e.g., bioterrorism and chemical terrorism, natural disasters) and response (e.g., medication dispensing, information provision, vaccination response teams, and medical reserve corps) on community and national levels, and ensure that they have the ability to participate in such activities when needed.
  2. Promote the availability of effective health and disease prevention services and health policy through the ability to apply population-specific data, quality improvement strategies, informatics, and research processes to identify and solve public health problems, and to help develop health policy.
    1. Collaborate with pertinent local and state organizations, health-care providers and policy makers responsible for the development of public health initiatives/policy and identify methods to stimulate their support.
    2. Evaluate the outcomes of the program/intervention and recommend improvement strategies.
    3. Continually advocate for improved polices that increase access to health services and reduce health risks.

D. Develop skills necessary to maintain competency and become self-directed lifelong learners.

  1. Communicate and collaborate with patients, care givers, physicians, nurses, other health-care providers, policy makers, members of the community and administrative and support personnel to engender a team approach to patient care.
  2. Retrieve, analyze, and interpret the professional, lay, and scientific literature to provide drug information and counseling to patients, their families or care givers, as well as other health-care providers.
  3. Demonstrate expertise in informatics.
  4. Carry out duties in accordance with legal, ethical, social, economic, and professional guidelines.
    1. Evaluate and resolve ethical dilemmas that arise in practice and find a solution that is acceptable to all parties involved.
  5. Maintain professional competence by identifying and analyzing emerging issues, products, and services.